New network architectures have been developed to reduce the cost of installing high bandwidth services to the home always using the acronym FTTx (Fiber to the x).
The most used terms are:
FTTH (Fiber-to-the-Home): Optical fiber connection, reaches the boundary of the living space, such as a panel box on the outside wall of a home. Passive optical networks and point-to-point Ethernet are architectures that deliver triple-play services over FTTH networks directly from an operator’s central office.
FTTP (Fiber-to-the-Premises): This term is used either as a term for both FTTH and FTTB, where optical fiber cables network, includes both homes and small businesses.
FTTN (Fiber-to-the-Node or Neighborhood): Fiber is terminated in a street cabinet, possibly miles away from the customer premises, with the final connections being copper. FTTN is often an internal step to full FTTH, typically used to deliver an advanced triple-play telecommunications services.
FTTC / FTTK (Fiber-to-the-Curb/Cabinet or Kerb): Very similar to FTTN. Fiber is terminated in a street cabinet (or curb) closer to the user’s premises, typically within 1,000 feet (300 m), within a range for high-bandwidth copper technology, such as wired Ethernet or IEEE 1901 power line networking and wireless Wi-Fi technology.
FTTB (Fiber-to-the-Building or Business): Fiber reaches the boundary of the building, in a multi-dwelling unit, with the final connection to the individual living space being made via alternative means, similar to the curb or cabinet technologies.
FTTD (Fiber-to-the-Desktop): Fiber connection is installed from the main computer room to a terminal or fiber media converter near the user’s desk.
FTTE / FTTZ (Fiber-to-the-Telecom or Fiber-to-the-Zone): Is a form of structured cabling typically used in enterprise local area networks, where fiber is used to link the main computer equipment room to an enclosure, close to the desk or workstation. FTTE and FTTZ are not considered part of the FTTX group of technologies, despite the similarity in name.
FTTW (Fiber to Wireless): WiFi has become available inside businesses and in areas served by municipal networks, where distances are so large that cabling is unfeasible. Future options include WiMAX and Super WiFi-based wireless with longer ranges and higher bandwidth capability can be placed anywhere and connected with fiber and power.
FTTP (Fiber-to-the-Premises) or FTTH (Fiber-to-the-Home): Provides and end-to-end fiber optic connection to a home or building and can deliver faster speeds, since there is no copper leg at all. Fiber to the Home / Premises (FTTH / FTTP) and Fiber to the Cabinet (FTTC) services offer flexibility where is necessary to share a high speed fiber broadband with a mixture of wired and wireless connectivity or just pure wireless connectivity without the need of the main computer being
switched on. Fiber to the Premises (FTTP) is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery, where an optical fiber is installed in an optical distribution network, from the central office to the premises occupied by the subscriber. The term “FTTP” has become ambiguous and may also refer to FTTC, where the fiber terminates at a utility pole without reaching the premises. FTTP can be categorized according to where the optical fiber ends.Differences are as described below:
FTTH (Fiber to the Home) is a form of fiber-optic communication delivery that reaches one living or working space. The fiber extends from the central office to the subscriber’s living or working space. Once at the subscriber’s living or working space, the signal may be conveyed throughout the space using any means, including twisted pair, coaxial cable, wireless, power line communication, or optical fiber.
FTTB (Fiber to the Building or Business) is a form of fiber-optic communication that applies only to those places that contain multiple living or working spaces. The optical fiber ends in a box before reaching the subscribers living or working space itself, but may extend to the place containing that living or working space. The signal is conveyed to the final distance using non-optical means, installed including twisted pair, coaxial cable, wireless, or power line communication.
For FTTH and for some forms of FTTB, it is common for the existing phone systems, local area networks, and cable TV systems to be connected directly to the optical network terminal or unit. If any of these three systems cannot directly reach the unit, it is possible to combine signals and transport them over a common medium. Closer to the end-user the equipment, such as routers, modems, or network interface controllers, can separate the signals and convert them into the appropriate user protocol.
FTTN Fiber to the Node or Neighborhood is sometimes distinguished from FTTC (Fiber to the Cabinet, which is a telecommunication architecture based on fiber-optic cables running from a cabinet to serve a neighborhood. Customers are typically connected to this cabinet using traditional coaxial cable or twisted pair wiring, usually inside a radius area of 1 mile (1.6 Km), and can contain several hundred customers.
FTTN, unlike FTTP, often uses existing coaxial or twisted-pair infrastructure, high-speed communication protocols, such as broadband cable access (typically DOCSIS) or some form of digital subscriber line (DSL). The data rates vary according to the exact protocol used and according to how close the customer is to the cabinet. However, when the cabinet serves an area approximately of 1,000 ft (300 m) in radius, this architecture is only called typically FTTC/FTTK.
Fiber to the Cabinet (FTTC) or Fiber to the Curb is a telecommunications system based on fiberoptic cables installed on a platform that serves several customers. Each of these customers has a connection to this platform via coaxial cable or twisted pair. As defined above, typically any fiber ending within 1,000 ft (300 m) of the customer premises equipment, are described as FTTC.
FTTC isn’t as fast as a full FTTH connection and, where FTTC is available, a new green cabinet is commonly installed near or next an existing street side. Then, FTTC connection has fiber optic cable running from the telephone exchange to this green street side cabinet. From there, copper network is used to deliver the broadband from the cabinet to the premises. When any user currently has an ADSL router with a built-in ADSL modem, this will not work with FTTC.